Aplicación CRUD en Laravel

Creación de una aplicación ToDo en Laravel

Servidor VPS en DigitalOcean.com: LEMP

Getting started after deploying LEMP

In addition to the package installation, the 1-Click also:

  • Enables the UFW firewall to allow only SSH (port 22, rate limited), HTTP (port 80), and HTTPS (port 443) access.
  • Sets the MySQL root password and runs mysql_secure_installation.
  • Sets up the debian-sys-maint user in MySQL so the system’s init scripts for MySQL will work without requiring the MySQL root user password.

After you create a LEMP 1-Click Droplet:

  • You can view the LEMP instance immediately by visiting the Droplet’s IP address in your browser.
  • You can log into the Droplet as root using either the password you set when you created the Droplet or with an SSH key, if you added one during creation.
  • The MySQL root password is in /root/.digitalocean_password.
  • The web root is /var/www/html.
  • You can get information about the PHP installation by logging into the Droplet and running php -i.

Configuración del servidor

Conexión al droplet por ssh

ssh root@alumno.xyz

adduser usuario
usermod -aG sudo usuario
apt install mc

Actualizar PHP a la versión 8:

apt install software-properties-common
add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
apt update
apt install php8.0-fpm
php -v
systemctl status php8.0-fpm
apt install php8.0-mysql php8.0-mbstring php8.0-xml php8.0-bcmath

Instalar node.js y npm

Cómo instalar Node.js en Ubuntu 20.04

Installation instructions

# Using Ubuntu
curl -fsSL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_16.x | sudo -E bash -
 
sudo apt-get install -y nodejs

node -v
 
npm -v

Server Requirements

EL servidor debe tener instalada la versión mínima de PHP y estas extensiones:

  • PHP >= 7.3
  • BCMath PHP Extension
  • Ctype PHP Extension
  • Fileinfo PHP Extension
  • JSON PHP Extension
  • Mbstring PHP Extension
  • OpenSSL PHP Extension
  • PDO PHP Extension
  • Tokenizer PHP Extension
  • XML PHP Extension

How to install all required PHP extensions for Laravel?

sudo apt install openssl php-common php-curl php-json php-mbstring php-mysql php-xml php-zip

Conexión al droplet con un usuario diferente a root:

ssh usuario@alumno.xyz

Instalación de Composer

Composer 2: How to Install in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer -o composer-setup.php
sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer
composer -V

Installation Via Composer

Git support

Instalación de Laravel

Do not run Composer as root/super user! See https://getcomposer.org/root for details

composer create-project laravel/laravel todo
 
cd todo

Error en el droplet con 1 Gb de RAM (son necesarios 2 Gb de RAM, como mínimo):Redimensionar el droplet con 2 Gb de memoria RAM (cuando se termine la instalación se puede volver a redimensionar a 1 Gb):

Crear la base de datos todoDB, el usuario todoUser y la password malaga20*

mysql -u root -p
 
CREATE DATABASE todoDB;
CREATE USER 'todoUser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'malaga20*';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON todoDB.* TO 'todoUser'@'localhost';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
exit

Modificar el fichero .env:

nano .env

Información de conexión a la base de datos:

DB_CONNECTION=mysql

DB_HOST=127.0.0.1

DB_PORT=3306

DB_DATABASE=todoDB

DB_USERNAME=todoUser

DB_PASSWORD=malaga20*

Montar en el equipo local el sistema de ficheros remoto

Nota: Estos comandos se ejecutan en el equipo local, no en el droplet

mkdir servidor
 
sshfs usuario@alumno.xyz:/home/usuario/todo/ servidor -p 22

Laravel

HTTP:

Using HTTP Methods for RESTful Services

CRUD To-do Application in Laravel

Rutas:

php artisan route:list

Blade:

Let’s Blade

Laravel 8 Layouts And Views: Complete Guide

Poner permiso de escritura para www-data en carpeta storage o cambiar el propietario/grupo de la carpeta:

sudo chown -R usuario:www-data storage

How to set up file permissions for Laravel?

Modificación de la página principal

fichero public/css/styles.css (obtenido de welcome.blade.php)

html{line-height:1.15;-webkit-text-size-adjust:100%}body{margin:0}a{background-color:transparent}[hidden]{display:none}html{font-family:system-ui,-apple-system,BlinkMacSystemFont,Segoe UI,Roboto,Helvetica Neue,Arial,Noto Sans,sans-serif,Apple Color Emoji,Segoe UI Emoji,Segoe UI Symbol,Noto Color Emoji;line-height:1.5}*,:after,:before{box-sizing:border-box;border:0 solid #e2e8f0}a{color:inherit;text-decoration:inherit}svg,video{display:block;vertical-align:middle}video{max-width:100%;height:auto}.bg-white{--bg-opacity:1;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,var(--bg-opacity))}.bg-gray-100{--bg-opacity:1;background-color:#f7fafc;background-color:rgba(247,250,252,var(--bg-opacity))}.border-gray-200{--border-opacity:1;border-color:#edf2f7;border-color:rgba(237,242,247,var(--border-opacity))}.border-t{border-top-width:1px}.flex{display:flex}.grid{display:grid}.hidden{display:none}.items-center{align-items:center}.justify-center{justify-content:center}.font-semibold{font-weight:600}.h-5{height:1.25rem}.h-8{height:2rem}.h-16{height:4rem}.text-sm{font-size:.875rem}.text-lg{font-size:1.125rem}.leading-7{line-height:1.75rem}.mx-auto{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}.ml-1{margin-left:.25rem}.mt-2{margin-top:.5rem}.mr-2{margin-right:.5rem}.ml-2{margin-left:.5rem}.mt-4{margin-top:1rem}.ml-4{margin-left:1rem}.mt-8{margin-top:2rem}.ml-12{margin-left:3rem}.-mt-px{margin-top:-1px}.max-w-6xl{max-width:72rem}.min-h-screen{min-height:100vh}.overflow-hidden{overflow:hidden}.p-6{padding:1.5rem}.py-4{padding-top:1rem;padding-bottom:1rem}.px-6{padding-left:1.5rem;padding-right:1.5rem}.pt-8{padding-top:2rem}.fixed{position:fixed}.relative{position:relative}.top-0{top:0}.right-0{right:0}.shadow{box-shadow:0 1px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.1),0 1px 2px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.06)}.text-center{text-align:center}.text-gray-200{--text-opacity:1;color:#edf2f7;color:rgba(237,242,247,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-300{--text-opacity:1;color:#e2e8f0;color:rgba(226,232,240,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-400{--text-opacity:1;color:#cbd5e0;color:rgba(203,213,224,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-500{--text-opacity:1;color:#a0aec0;color:rgba(160,174,192,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-600{--text-opacity:1;color:#718096;color:rgba(113,128,150,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-700{--text-opacity:1;color:#4a5568;color:rgba(74,85,104,var(--text-opacity))}.text-gray-900{--text-opacity:1;color:#1a202c;color:rgba(26,32,44,var(--text-opacity))}.underline{text-decoration:underline}.antialiased{-webkit-font-smoothing:antialiased;-moz-osx-font-smoothing:grayscale}.w-5{width:1.25rem}.w-8{width:2rem}.w-auto{width:auto}.grid-cols-1{grid-template-columns:repeat(1,minmax(0,1fr))}@media (min-width:640px){.sm\:rounded-lg{border-radius:.5rem}.sm\:block{display:block}.sm\:items-center{align-items:center}.sm\:justify-start{justify-content:flex-start}.sm\:justify-between{justify-content:space-between}.sm\:h-20{height:5rem}.sm\:ml-0{margin-left:0}.sm\:px-6{padding-left:1.5rem;padding-right:1.5rem}.sm\:pt-0{padding-top:0}.sm\:text-left{text-align:left}.sm\:text-right{text-align:right}}@media (min-width:768px){.md\:border-t-0{border-top-width:0}.md\:border-l{border-left-width:1px}.md\:grid-cols-2{grid-template-columns:repeat(2,minmax(0,1fr))}}@media (min-width:1024px){.lg\:px-8{padding-left:2rem;padding-right:2rem}}@media (prefers-color-scheme:dark){.dark\:bg-gray-800{--bg-opacity:1;background-color:#2d3748;background-color:rgba(45,55,72,var(--bg-opacity))}.dark\:bg-gray-900{--bg-opacity:1;background-color:#1a202c;background-color:rgba(26,32,44,var(--bg-opacity))}.dark\:border-gray-700{--border-opacity:1;border-color:#4a5568;border-color:rgba(74,85,104,var(--border-opacity))}.dark\:text-white{--text-opacity:1;color:#fff;color:rgba(255,255,255,var(--text-opacity))}.dark\:text-gray-400{--text-opacity:1;color:#cbd5e0;color:rgba(203,213,224,var(--text-opacity))}}

Añadir Bootstrap

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/bootstrap@4.6.0/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css" integrity="sha384-B0vP5xmATw1+K9KRQjQERJvTumQW0nPEzvF6L/Z6nronJ3oUOFUFpCjEUQouq2+l" crossorigin="anonymous">

fichero resources/views/welcome.blade.php

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="{{ str_replace('_', '-', app()->getLocale()) }}">
    <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

        <title>Laravel</title>

        <!-- Fonts -->
        <link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css2?family=Nunito:wght@400;600;700&display=swap" rel="stylesheet">
        
        <!-- Bootstrap -->
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/bootstrap@4.6.0/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css" integrity="sha384-B0vP5xmATw1+K9KRQjQERJvTumQW0nPEzvF6L/Z6nronJ3oUOFUFpCjEUQouq2+l" crossorigin="anonymous">

        <!-- Styles -->
        <!-- normalize.css v8.0.1 | MIT License | github.com/necolas/normalize.css  -->
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/styles.css">
        <!-- <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/necolas/normalize.css/master/normalize.css">  -->
        
        <style>
            body {
                font-family: 'Nunito', sans-serif;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
    <body class="antialiased">
        <div class="relative flex items-top justify-center min-h-screen bg-gray-100 dark:bg-gray-900 sm:items-center py-4 sm:pt-0">
            @if (Route::has('login'))
                <div class="hidden fixed top-0 right-0 px-6 py-4 sm:block">
                    @auth
                        <a href="{{ url('/dashboard') }}" class="text-sm text-gray-700 underline">Dashboard</a>
                    @else
                        <a href="{{ route('login') }}" class="text-sm text-gray-700 underline">Log in</a>

                        @if (Route::has('register'))
                            <a href="{{ route('register') }}" class="ml-4 text-sm text-gray-700 underline">Register</a>
                        @endif
                    @endauth
                </div>
            @endif
                      

            <div class="max-w-4xl mx-auto sm:px-6 lg:px-4">
                
                <div class="flex justify-center text-primary">
                    <h1>Todo Tasks</h1>					
                </div>
                <div class="flex justify-center text-success">
                    <h3>Manage your tasks online</h3>
                </div>
                <div class="flex justify-center text-secondary">
                    <h4>info@alumno.xyz</h4>
                </div>


                <div class="flex justify-center">                   
                    <div class="ml-4 text-center text-sm text-gray-500">
                        Laravel v{{ Illuminate\Foundation\Application::VERSION }} (PHP v{{ PHP_VERSION }})
                    </div>
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </body>
</html>

Limpiar la caché de Laravel:

sudo php artisan cache:clear

Validation Tutorial : Laravel To-Do Part 2

Información sobre Blade:

Plantillas Blade

Tutorial de vistas con Blade

Plantillas mediante Blade

Learning Blade Templates

Example: Blade Template Layout

Código en GitHub

Información sobre Bootstrap:

Learn Bootstrap 4 in 30 minutes

Ejemplo en GitHub: Bootstrap4 website

Bootstrap 4 Tutorial

Tutorial de Bootstrap 4

CSRF Protection in Laravel

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